Glossary

Bladder:
A hollow muscular organ that collects and stores urine from the kidneys before disposal by urination.

Bulking Agent:
An implant injected around the urethral sphincter to help it completely close. Bulking agents treat urinary incontinence due to Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency.

Clinical effectiveness:
The application of the best knowledge, derived from research, clinical experience and patient preferences to achieve optimum processes and outcomes of care for patients.

Constipation:
A condition of the bowel where evacuation is infrequent or difficult.

Continence:
The ability to exercise voluntary control over natural functions.

Cystoscope:
Endoscopy of the bladder and urinary tract. It is a thin tube with a camera and light on the end to visualise the urinary bladder via the urethra.

Day-Procedure:
Also called outpatient surgery or same-day surgery, are surgical procedures not requiring an overnight hospital stay.

Dementia:
a collection of symptoms that are caused by disorders affecting the brain. Dementia affects thinking, behaviour and the ability to perform everyday tasks.

Endoscope:
A camera used in medicine to look inside the body.

Faecal Incontinence:
Any accidental or involuntary loss of faeces.

Gold Standard:
Diagnostic test or treatment that is the best available under reasonable conditions.

Incontinence:
The involuntary loss of urine or faeces due to nerve damage or muscle weakness.

Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency (ISD):
A weakness of the urethral sphincter causing the inability to sufficiently close or ‘coapt’ the urinary sphincter in order to prevent urine leakage.

Manual Activation:
The inability of a device to be deployed through natural functions.

Minimally Invasive:
A surgery minimizing surgical incisions to reduce trauma to the body.

Mixed Incontinence:
The condition of having both stress urinary incontinence and urge urinary incontinence.

Nocturia:
The urge to urinate several times throughout the night due to an overactive bladder.

Non-Invasive:
Not involving the introduction of instruments into the body.

Overactive Bladder:
A chronic condition of the bladder that causes a sudden and intense urge to urinate.

Pelvic Floor:
A group of muscles located in the pelvis that stretch like a hammock from the pubic bone to the coccyx, and from side to side. The pelvic floor keeps the pelvic organs in place.

Percutaneous Tibial Nerve Stimulation (PTNS):
An office-based form of neuromodulation to treat OAB that delivers electrical stimulation from the tibial nerve to the sacral plexus.

Post-Operatively:
After the surgery.

Prostate:
The gland which surrounds the urethra of males at the base of the bladder. The prostate releases a fluid component of semen.

Prostatectomy:
the surgical removal of all or part of the prostate gland. This operation is done for benign conditions that cause urinary retention, as well as for prostate cancer and for other cancers of the pelvis.

Quality of Life (QoL):
A measurement in healthcare of how a certain ailment affects a patient on an individual level.

Radiation Therapy:
A cancer treatment using X-rays to damage cancer cells, so they cannot multiply.
Radiation therapy is also known as radiotherapy.

Radical Prostatectomy:
A radical Prostatectomy is a urological operation used to treat prostate cancer. This involves the complete removal of the prostate gland, part of the urethra, and the seminal vesicles. For aggressive cancers, the adjacent lymph glands may also be removed.

Sacral Plexus:
A network of nerves which provides motor and sensory nerves for the posterior thigh, most of the lower leg and foot, and part of the pelvis. It is located in the lumbar vertebrae and sacral vertebrae.

Stress Urinary Incontinence (SUI):
The involuntary loss of urine due to added pressure, for example after sneezing, coughing or laughing.

Tissue Atrophy:
Decrease in size of a body part, cell, organ, or tissue.

Revision Surgery:
Surgery performed to replace or compensate for a failed implant or to correct undesirable as scars or scar tissue of previous surgery.

TURP:
A transurethral resection of the prostate is a urological operation used to treat the non-cancerous enlargement or growth of the prostate (benign prostatic hyperplasia). it is performed by visualising the prostate through the urethra and removing tissue, without removing the entire gland.

Urethra:
The membranous tube which extends from the bladder to the exterior. In the male, it
conveys semen as well as urine.

Urge Incontinence:
The involuntary loss of urine due to a sudden and intense urge to urinate.

Urinary Incontinence:
Any accidental or involuntary loss of urine from the bladder.

Urinary Retention:
The inability to empty the bladder completely.

Urethral sphincters:
The urethral sphincters are two muscles used to control the exit of urine in the urinary bladder through the urethra.